Clarifying Catholicism enjoys publishing point-counterpoint opinions on controversial and political matters. This week, two of our writers debate whether or not Catholics should support Vice President Joe Biden for the presidency. The opinions of these writers do not necessarily reflect those of the Clarifying Catholicism writing staff. We encourage you to participate in this discussion in the comments below and by responding to the survey at the end of the article!
The Catholic Case for Biden
by Julia O’Donnell, Guest Writer from Suzanna Goretti
Dear Fellow Catholics,
During the last election, I lived in a Catholic community that was extremely pro-Trump. They sang his praises, wore his hats, and bought his bobble-head dolls. Still, there was something in me that screamed: “This man is not pro-life, he does not have our best interests at heart, and he is dangerous.” It all came to a head at student Mass one day. The priest began by saying that we could never support someone who blatantly brags about sexual harassment, but then, he explained that because Trump is pro-life, we had to vote for him. My heart was in knots. As soon as classes were over, I ran to the chapel in tears. The same priest was hearing confessions, so I went to him. Sobbing, I told him I wanted so badly to be a good Catholic, but I could not vote for Trump. He reprimanded me for being a Hillary supporter (which is not what I said or meant,) and told me, “Why don’t you just leave.”
This interaction is burned in my mind as one of the most terrifying moments of my life. I felt so abandoned by God, and was certain that He hated me. After that, it became incredibly important for me to know exactly what the Church teaches about voting, and this year, after studying and some eye-opening experiences, I have dedicated myself to helping others who are in the same situation as I was in.
How the Catholic Church Saw This Coming
When priests and bishops preach about the document Forming Consciences for Faithful Citizenship, they heavily focus on the right to life as the pre-eminent issue. What they often do not often mention, however, is that the right to life section mentions many more issues than just abortion. Among them are the immigrant’s right to safety, human rights, affordable housing, and racial justice. Other significant issues are, “educating the young, serving families in crisis, caring for the sick, sheltering the homeless, helping women who face difficult pregnancies, feeding the hungry, welcoming immigrants and refugees, reaching out in global solidarity, and pursuing peace.” In my opinion, President Trump violates nearly every “right to life” issue other than abortion itself.
In my experience, the immediate response of Trump supporters to this argument is that abortion is the most important issue. In some ways, that is true. Abortion deserves our attention, and it is a crisis that we should work very hard to resolve. However, Forming Consciences for Faithful Citizenship anticipates this argument:
As Catholics, we are not single-issue voters. A candidate’s position on a single issue is not sufficient to guarantee a voter’s support. Yet if a candidate’s position on a single issue promotes an intrinsically evil act, such as legal abortion, redefining marriage in a way that denies its essential meaning, or racist behavior, a voter may legitimately disqualify a candidate from receiving support.Forming Consciences for Faithful Citizenship 42
When all candidates hold a position that promotes an intrinsically evil act, the conscientious voter faces a dilemma. The voter may decide to take the extraordinary step of not voting for any candidate or, after careful deliberation, may decide to vote for the candidate deemed less likely to advance such a morally flawed position and more likely to pursue other authentic human goods. (36)Forming Consciences for Faithful Citizenship 36
Those who argue that Trump is our only option overlook that there are several issues that Biden addresses better than Trump does.
Any politics of human dignity must seriously address issues of racism, poverty, hunger, employment, education, housing, and health care. . . . If we understand the human person as the “temple of the Holy Spirit”—the living house of God— then these issues fall logically into place as the crossbeams and walls of that house. All direct attacks on innocent human life, such as abortion and euthanasia, strike at the house’s foundation.Living the Gospel of Life, no. 22 quoted in Forming Consciences, emphasis mine
Later in the document, the death penalty is also mentioned as an issue that we MUST work against. Furthermore, the document states:
These decisions should take into account a candidate’s commitments, character, integrity, and ability to influence a given issue.Forming Consciences for Faithful Citizens 37
In my opinion, the detailed way that the USCCB refutes single issue voting speaks volumes. Trump’s conduct has repeatedly shown us a lack of character and integrity that rivals any political character in recent memory. However, he is aware that the Christians are hyper-focused on abortion and same sex marriage right now. He has constantly used those issues to distract us from severe and concerning policy misdeeds, which has led to the dismissal of all the other intrinsic evils he is responsible for, such as racism, poverty, ending affordable healthcare with no replacement plan, disregard for the lives of the elderly and immigrants, and an appalling determination to fight for the death penalty. Even on Twitter, Trump shows us who he is, and if we vote for him, we are complicit in encouraging his rhetoric.
So, Why Biden?
At first, when I found out Biden was the candidate, I was apathetic. I was grateful that Warren had not been chosen because she was a radically pro-abortion candidate and I could not have voted for her (nor did I vote for Hillary.) However, over time through prayer and study, I became convinced that Joseph Biden is exactly what our country needs right now. It is important to note first of all, that a Catholic cannot fully support Joe Biden because he does politically support abortion. However, On Forming Catholic Consciences prepares us for this decision as well.
When all candidates hold a position that promotes an intrinsically evil act, the conscientious voter faces a dilemma. The voter may decide to take the extraordinary step of not voting for any candidate or, after careful deliberation, may decide to vote for the candidate deemed less likely to advance such a morally flawed position and more likely to pursue other authentic human goods.Forming Consciences for Faithful Citizens 36
Many Catholics who are pro-life but politically pro-choice do not necessarily support abortion. Instead, they believe there are better ways to fight it that will be more effective, as opposed to overturning Roe v. Wade. They also may have concerns about other rights that may be violated if laws that protect abortion are dismissed. I believe that Joe Biden is one of these people. My primary evidence for that is that Biden’s entire campaign is about helping the poor, especially women, financially, medically, emotionally, and physically.
In the Catholic community where I was ostracized, I became incredibly sick when I was pregnant. I was eventually forced to quit my job because my employer refused to extend my maternity leave so that I could full-time breastfeed my daughter on my doctor’s recommendations (she was born 10 weeks early). Throughout that time, I received a crash course in the difficulties that women in this country face during and after pregnancy.
Biden wants to change everything that terrified me as a new mother. On his website he mentions the Maternal death rate in the United States, which is disgracefully high, and his plans to help. He wants to make sure women and children have the insurance they need to be healthy. He plans on helping those who are seeking low-income housing and more. Meanwhile, while my family searched for affordable housing for two years, Trump bragged on Twitter about how he made it harder for low-income families to get housing in safer neighborhoods. He advertised his policies as keeping families safe when ours just wanted a home. There were so many moments I was so scared for our family (we are doing much better now, though), and I firmly believe that if women were not as scared, abortion rates would plummet.
Biden’s plan for the police is a testament to what makes him a great candidate. During the George Floyd protests and riots, while some members of the Democratic party called for defunding the police and Republicans turned a blind eye to racism, Joseph Biden quietly met with police leaders to discuss what they actually needed to do a better job. I was concerned at first to see that he suggested a higher budget until I read his memoir about his son, Beau’s, death:
In the late 80’s when the crime rate exploded, I began to pursue a new-but, in fact, a very old-concept of policing. That was getting cops back walking the street so they’ll know the shopkeepers, know the kids in the neighborhood, know the neighborhood. And getting the neighborhood to know the cops and to trust them.Promise me, Dad 40
He then writes about how he got funding to for police in 1994 and saw an improvement in crime rates by 0.6 million incidents (2 million down to 1.4 million.) This shows his desire to think outside of party lines and seek compromise. It also shows empathy and love for both sides in the way Jesus desires us to approach others.
Another issue that shows Biden’s primacy as a candidate for me is one which I strongly disagree strongly with him. Biden believes in mandatory vaccines. He personally would like for them to be mandatory, but he admits that it is not Constitutional for them to be required. Therefore, he would only encourage state leaders to do so. This is important reason because he recognizes his limitations, and is willing to abide by them, even when he disagrees with them. I believe that is also his stance on abortion because he has said that he is pro-life in his own life. President Trump has a fundamental disrespect for the checks and balances that keep our citizens safe from any one party taking control. He has repeatedly engaged in activities and speech that lack integrity and respect for his office and those of others.
America was built on checks and balances because we were built “One nation under GOD.” Our founders understood that humans are flawed and that great power corrupts. Through prayer and wisdom, they created a nation that recognized the threat of human greed for power. President Trump’s lack of respect for the boundaries of the presidency has repeatedly shown us that he cannot be trusted to work towards peace with anyone with whom he disagrees in the United States. Joe Biden’s humility in accepting his limits tells me that he would not act that way. He is everyone’s president. Pope Francis speaks of social principles of voting. The goal they should be directed at is “progress in building a people in peace, justice, and fraternity.” Joe Biden is working courageously in the face of great division to build that unity.
For me, this was an easy election. After everything I have been through and what I have seen, there was no question in my mind that Joe Biden is everything this country needs right now. That said, no Catholic may support a candidate who engages in intrinsic evil without ensuring that their reason for voting for them is not tethered to it. Both candidates in this election are pursuing certain intrinsic evils. However, one candidate consistently promulgates them, while the other wants to let individuals decide them for themselves. We are supposed to fight against abortion, and we should, but right now, when so many things are at stake, we cannot blind ourselves to every other issue.
On a final note, this election is a heavy choice for all of us, please vote your conscience. God loves you either way, no matter what. What matters, in the end is if you seek Him and if you follow what He told you. I could never in good conscience vote for Trump, maybe you can. Either way, God be with you.
The Catholic Case against Biden
by Jonathan McMonigal, University of Valley Forge Alumnus
“Liberal Catholics are wolves in sheep’s clothing. The priest must unveil to the people their perfidious plot, their iniquitous design.”Pope St. Pius X
On November 3rd 2020, we the people of the United States will elect our next president. Our Republic stands at a momentous crossroad, a choice between President Donald Trump or former Vice President Joe Biden. Christians make up the majority of the electorate, and Catholics are the largest single Church in the country.[i] Thus a grave responsibility hangs over Catholics to vote the right way.[ii] Catholics must vote against Joe Biden for president, for he will violate our religious liberty through government enforced contraception, the destruction of the family, and abortion.
In framing this political dialogue, Pope Benedict XVI in 2006 noted specific Catholic non-negotiables like protecting human life and traditional marriage.[iii] These are sacrosanct. The Biden agenda undermines life through contraception and abortion while distorting the family by redefining marriage. Although many Catholics object to the Trump administration, there is no comparison. In a 2004 letter from the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF), then Cardinal Ratzinger notified the Archbishop of D.C. that: “Not all moral issues have the same moral weight as abortion and euthanasia.”[iv] Some sins are worse than others, and Biden promotes the worst of them.
Whether from genuine change or cheap gain, a once faithful Biden now governs like an atheist. Joe has simply left us behind. In light of this, Fr. Robert Morey denied him Holy Communion in 2019, stating Biden was “outside of Church teaching”.[v] This year, Cardinal Raymond Burke referenced Biden was “not a Catholic in good standing” but “gives scandal to everyone”.[vi] Archbishop Carlo Maria Vigano simply stated: “The self-styled Catholic Joe Biden… is not Catholic. Period.”[vii] If Biden will no longer vote like Christ, then he must be voted against by Christians. Oh Pope St. Pius X, pray for us.
Contrary to the infamous Sexual Revolution, the Catholic Church teaches the primary purpose of sex is procreation. As the Second Vatican Council states: “By their very nature, the institution of matrimony itself and conjugal love are ordained for the procreation and education of children, and find in them their ultimate crown.”[viii] In contrast, the Sexual Revolution perverted the purpose of sex for hedonism. Fr. Habiger notes that contraception “destroys the connection between love and life.”[ix] Sex must be always open to the joyous fruit of life.
In the 1968 encyclical “Humane Vitae”, Pope St. Paul VI reaffirmed the Christian condemnation of contraception, declaring it “intrinsically wrong”.[x] Pope St. John Paul II would echo this in his 1993 encyclical “Veritatis Splendor”, decrying contraceptive practices as “intrinsically evil acts”.[xi] Today, the Catechism of the Catholic Church under Pope Francis states contraception is “morally unacceptable”.[xii] Rome has spoken; the case is closed. Catholics must submit their intellect and will to our spiritual shepherds.
As a Catholic politician, one would think Biden would allow religious liberty to avoid contraception. No, he has betrayed us all. In 2012, the Obama-Biden administration mandated under the Affordable Care Act that all employers—whether religious or not—must “pay for contraceptives, sterilization, and morning-after abortifacients for its employees”.[xiii] The Little Sisters of the Poor sued for a religious exemption, and they won their case in the Supreme Court in 2020.[xiv] Upon hearing the news, Biden shamefully promised to “fight like Hell” to again force contraception on the Little Sisters.[xv] This is a disturbing violation of conscience, and Biden will stop at nothing until contraception is enforced nationwide. Oh Lord, please have mercy on America.
In a recent interview for his upcoming biography, Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI remarked: “A century ago, anyone would have thought it absurd to talk about homosexual marriage.”[xvi] He then linked this drastic change to the “spiritual power of the Antichrist”.[xvii] In 2012, Vice President Biden came out as the highest U.S. official to ever endorse gay marriage.[xviii] In response, a once ambiguous President Obama then became the first gay affirming Commander-in-Chief.[xix] Afterwards, the administration successfully lobbied the Supreme Court to legalize gay marriage in 2015.[xx] As one last middle finger to the Church, Biden officiated a televised gay wedding in his own home.[xxi]
In contrast, the Second Vatican Council holds “Marriage and conjugal love are by their nature ordained toward the begetting and educating of children”.[xxii] Thus gay marriage is an oxymoron. In 1975, Pope St. Paul VI per the CDF condemned homosexual acts as “intrinsically disordered” and “serious depravity”.[xxiii] In the 1993 encyclical “Veritatis Splendor”, Pope St. John Paul II referenced homosexual acts as “intrinsically evil”.[xxiv] Today, the Catechism under Pope Francis states concerning homosexual acts: “Under no circumstances can they be approved.”[xxv] Marriage is only between one husband and one wife in pursuit of family life.
Once Biden supported traditional marriage, but now he calls those opposed to gay marriage “virulent people”.[xxvi] Today Biden promises to pass the disastrous “Equality Act”, which the U.S. bishops warn will shut down Catholic adoption agencies for refusing gay couples.[xxvii] This bill will remove most religious exemptions for employers, meaning you either bake the gay wedding cake or shut your doors.[xxviii] Biden’s war on religious liberty will be total. Oh Christ, please have mercy on America.
The travesty of abortion is the great issue of this election. The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops declared this year: “The threat of abortion remains our preeminent priority because it directly attacks life itself, because it takes place within the sanctuary of the family, and because of the number of lives destroyed.”[xxix] In America alone, there have been 61 million abortions, a unspeakable bloodbath.[xxx] The Second Vatican Council decreed “abortion and infanticide are abominable crimes.”[xxxi] In the 1993 Encyclical “Veritatis Splendor”, Pope St. John Paul II condemned abortion as “intrinsically evil”.[xxxii] Today, the Catechism under Pope Francis declares the act of abortion to be such a “grave offense” that it incurs immediate excommunication.[xxxiii]
As an act of Judas Iscariot, Biden is now running the most Pro-Abortion presidential campaign in history. Biden promises to repeal the Hyde Amendment, allowing for unlimited, federally funded abortions.[xxxiv] He will reverse the Mexico City policy, sending our tax dollars abroad to promote abortion.[xxxv] Biden even promises to codify Roe v. Wade into law, forever enshrining abortion in America.[xxxvi] This would be a catastrophic defeat for the Pro-Life cause. It would be virtually impossible to reverse.
Biden’s embrace of abortion is a horrendous scandal. Fr. Ed Meeks recently remarked: “The Democratic Party has become the Party of Death and Catholic Joe Biden is their standard-bearer.”[xxxvii] Officially endorsed by Planned Parenthood, Biden will impose the Culture of Death upon America, radicalizing the country into a Pro-Abortion state[xxxviii] Our religious liberty hangs in the balance, but Biden will snatch it away in an instant in exchange for the White House. All of this is one great slap in the face of Mother Church. Oh Lord, please have mercy on America.
The Catholic case against Biden is a simple one: he must be stopped from trampling our religious liberty by enforcing contraception, discriminating against the traditional family, and supporting abortion. A Biden administration will nationally champion intrinsic evil, possibly destroying Social Conservativism in our lifetime. Behind his bright smile, calm vibe, and cheery demeanor, Biden is a militant secularist, overthrowing the Social Kingship of Christ. The real Biden is a shameful persecutor of his own brethren.
On a final note, many Catholics claim a potential backdoor to vote for Biden. They cite Ratzinger’s 2004 CDF letter, which says voting for a Pro-Abortion politician is forbidden except for “ proportionate reasoning”.[xxxix] In layman terms, this means voting for the lesser of two evils. However, Fr. James Altman declared: ”Faithful Catholics do not support expanding the ‘right’ to murder millions of unborn babies.”[xl] No evil is proportionate to the abortion holocaust. For God’s sake, the blood of the unborn cries out to Heaven from dumpsters and landfills for justice! Who will avenge their slaughter? Catholics must rise up, march for life, and vote Biden down.
Fr. Kevin Cusick says it best that: “Joe Biden is not a practicing Catholic. And practicing Catholics cannot vote for Biden for president in good conscience.”[xli] For a more in-depth study, ”The Biden Report for Catholic Voters” is the gold standard, as it critiques the entire Biden agenda.[xlii] Morality compels Catholics away from Biden, but wisdom leads us to vote for Trump. The President is the only viable alternative to Biden, so a vote against Biden must be a vote for Trump. We are starring into the abyss, the point of no return. Time is short, so let us pray. Oh may the Most Holy Trinity—the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit—save America by the power of the cross. Amen.
[i] Newport, Frank. “Religious Identity and the 2020 Presidential Election”, Gallup,
[ii] Adelaide, Mena. “What does the Catholic Church say about voting?”, CNA, https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/what-does-the-catholic-church-say-about-voting-35338.
[iii] Benedict XVI. “Address of his Holiness Benedict XVI to the Members of the European People’s Party on the Occasion of the Study Days on Europe”, http://www.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/speeches/2006/march/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20060330_eu-parliamentarians.html.
[iv] Ratzinger, Joseph. “Worthiness to Receive Holy Communion: General Principles”, EWTN,, https://www.ewtn.com/catholicism/library/worthiness-to-receive-holy-communion-general-principles-2153.
[v] Christian, Matthew. “Joe Biden denied Holy Communion at Florence church”, SCNOW, https://scnow.com/news/local/joe-biden-denied-holy-communion-at-florence-church/article_4dfe451b-e181-5cdb-9da1-feae72795f0c.html.
[vi] Burger, Martin. “Cardinal Burke: Joe Biden is not a Catholic in ‘good standing’, should not receive Communion”, LifeSite, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/cardinal-burke-joe-biden-is-not-a-catholic-in-good-standing-should-not-receive-communion.
[vii] McCall, Brian. “Archbishop Viganò Speaks Again: Catholics Cannot Vote for Joe Biden”, Catholic Family News, https://catholicfamilynews.com/blog/2020/09/14/archbishop-vigano-speaks-again-catholics-cannot-vote-for-joe-biden/.
[viii] “Gaudium et Spes”, II.1.48.
[ix] Habiger, Matthew. “What Contraception does to the Individual, to Marriage, to Family, and to Society”, https://familyplanning.net/sites/default/files/What-Contraception-does-to-the-Individual2.pdf
[x] Paul VI. “Humane Vitae”, II.14.
[xi] John Paul II. “Veritatis Splendor, IV.80.
[xii] Catholic Church. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2399.
[xiii] Last, Jonathan. “Weekly Standard: Obamacare Vs. The Catholics”, NPR, https://www.npr.org/2012/02/07/146511839/weekly-standard-obamacare-vs-the-catholics.
[xiv] Blitzer, Ronn, Bream, Shannon, and Olson, Tyler, “Supreme Court Rules in Favor of Little Sisters of the Poor in Obamacare Contraception Case,” Fox News, https://www.foxnews.com/politics/scotus-upholds-religious-exemptions-to-obamacare-contraception-coverage.
[xv] “Joe Biden vs. the Nuns,” The Wall Street Journal, https://www.wsj.com/articles/joe-biden-vs-the-nuns-11594336792.
[xvi] Theisen, Lauren. “Ex-pope Benedict XVI links gay marriage, abortion with the Antichrist in new book”, Daily News, https://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/ny-ex-pope-benedict-xvi-links-gay-marriage-abortion-with-the-antichri-20200504-egsizedknnadrisjw5ibtqxdqu-story.html.
[xviii] Stein, Sam. “Joe Biden Tells ‘Meet The Press’ He’s ‘Comfortable’ With Marriage Equality”, Huffington Post, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/vice-president-biden-gay-marriage_n_1489235?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZm94bmV3cy5jb20v&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAAJojcc_xnlrbiSNhcHzsdCcTHhHH12dDqzI180kJ4x15Q73HUfnz1RWRrXQIW013NQ2yl-kYnMAgXvjUWCGAzvakd3Jp5j7kuq-qPYhwofVs3bftCxpFdib_qXNYLyu3m7Zb-vHhA2qjNn9AkbTfloZbcXDKECfpYBcLhfdtw1J2.
[xix] Shapiro, Ari. “Obama Endorses Same-Sex Marriage”, NPR, https://www.npr.org/2012/05/10/152396814/obama-endorses-same-sex-marriage.
[xx] De Vogue, Ariane. “Obama administration formally supports nationwide gay marriage”, CNN, https://edition.cnn.com/2015/03/06/politics/obama-nationwide-same-sex-marriage/index.html.
[xxi] “In a first, VP Joe Biden officiates a gay wedding”, Fox News, https://www.foxnews.com/politics/in-a-first-vp-joe-biden-officiates-a-gay-wedding.
[xxii] “Gaudium et Spes”, II.1.50.
[xxiii] The Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith. “Persona Humana”, VIII.
[xxiv] John Paul II. “Veritatis Splendor”, II.56.
[xxv] Catholic Church. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2357.
[xxvi] Caldera, Camille. “Fact check: Joe Biden called ‘forces of intolerance,’ not Trump supporters, the ‘dregs of society’”, USA Today, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/factcheck/2020/10/15/fact-check-biden-never-called-trump-supporters-dregs-society/5966195002/.
[xxvii] “US bishops: Equality Act will hurt more than help”, CNA, https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/us-bishops-equality-act-will-hurt-more-than-help-97962.
[xxviii] Shackford, Scott. “Supreme Court’s LGBT Discrimination Decision Revives Interest in the Federal Equality Act”, Reason, https://reason.com/2020/06/16/supreme-courts-lgbt-discrimination-decision-revives-interest-in-the-federal-equality-act/.
[xxix] Laurence, Lianne. “US bishops tell Catholic voters abortion is ‘preeminent issue’ in 2020 election”, LifeSite, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/us-bishops-tell-catholic-voters-abortion-is-preeminent-issue-in-2020-election.
[xxx] “Pope speaks to U.S. bishops about pro-life issues, transgender ideology”, NCR, https://www.ncronline.org/news/vatican/pope-speaks-us-bishops-about-pro-life-issues-transgender-ideology.
[xxxi]Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith. “Declaration on Procured Abortion”, VII.
[xxxii] John Paul II. “Veritatis Splendor”, IV.80.
[xxxiii] Catholic Church. Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2270-2272.
[xxxiv] Zhou, Li. “Joe Biden explains why he flipped on the Hyde Amendment”, Vox, https://www.vox.com/2019/6/22/18713603/joe-biden-hyde-amendment.
[xxxv] Desanctis, Alexandra. “Biden and Taxpayer-Funded Abortion”, National Review, https://www.nationalreview.com/corner/biden-and-taxpayer-funded-abortion/.
[xxxvi] Sider, David. “Biden calls for enshrining Roe v. Wade in federal law”, Politico, https://www.politico.com/story/2019/06/22/biden-roe-v-wade-2020-1376712.
[xxxvii] Chapman, Michael. “Catholic Pastor: ‘Democratic Party’ is the ‘Party of Death and Catholic Joe Biden is Their Standard-Bearer’”. CNS, https://www.cnsnews.com/index.php/article/national/michael-w-chapman/catholic-pastor-democratic-party-party-death-and-catholic-joe.
[xxxviii] McCammon, Sarah. “Planned Parenthood Backs Biden, Seeing A ‘Life And Death Election’ Ahead”, NPR, https://www.npr.org/2020/06/15/876893948/planned-parenthood-backs-biden-seeing-a-life-or-death-election-ahead.
[xxxix] Ratzinger, Joseph. “Worthiness to Receive Holy Communion: General Principles”, EWTN,, https://www.ewtn.com/catholicism/library/worthiness-to-receive-holy-communion-general-principles-2153
[xl] Gisondi, Victoria. “New Fr. Altman video explains why Joe Biden is a fake Catholic”, LifeSite, https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/new-fr-altman-video-explains-why-joe-biden-is-a-fake-catholic.
[xli] Cusick, Fr. Kevin. “A Leaven In The World… Biden Is Not A Practicing Catholic”, https://thewandererpress.com/catholic/news/our-catholic-faith/a-leaven-in-the-world-biden-is-not-a-practicing-catholic/
Catholic Church. Catechism of the Catholic Church. Revised 2nd ed. Vatican City: LibreriaEditrice Vaticana, 2019. Print.
Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith. “Persona Humana.” Vatican City, 1975,
John Paul II. “Veritatis Splendor.” The Holy See, 6 August, 1993,
Pastoral Constitution On The Church In The Modern World — Gaudium et Spes Promulgated by Pope Paul VI. [Vatican City]: 1965.
Paul VI. “Humanae Vitae.” The Holy See, 25 July 1968, http://www.vatican.va/content/paul-vi/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-vi_enc_25071968_humanae-vitae.html.